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Six Ways To Increase EV Battery Life, As Well as Six Things Lithium-Ion Batteries Despise

Our lives are becoming increasingly reliant on battery-powered products, the majority of which now utilize lithium-ion batteries, such as cell phones, computers, power tools, and—most significantly for us—electric vehicles. And many of us, at the very least, have encountered some degree of battery degradation. However, electric vehicles are more expensive, and reductions in battery capacity or ability to retain a charge might have a substantial effect on your driving behavior. Consider the fuel tank of your gas-powered car dwindling over time!

So, what are EV owners to do? The University of Michigan’s research into how customers may extend the life of lithium-ion batteries (in automobiles, phones, and other devices) was recently published in the Journal of Energy Storage, and it includes a few pointers. The research was funded by the Responsible Battery Coalition, a group of companies (including Ford and Honda), universities, and organizations committed to responsible battery management now and in the future to mitigate the environmental impact of our increasingly battery-powered lifestyles. Along with an academic study into battery longevity, the team examined battery usage and charging recommendations found in user manuals from manufacturers such as BMW, Chevrolet, Ford, Fiat, Honda, Hyundai, Kia, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, and Tesla.

Continue Reading To Discover Six Ways To Extend the Life of an Electric Vehicle’s Battery

1. Avoid prolonged exposure to high temperatures during storage and use — Whenever possible, park your EV in the shade or plug in to allow the battery’s thermal management system to operate on grid power.

2. Avoid prolonged exposure to low temperatures — Again, the threat is primarily associated with unplugged parking in extremely cold conditions. If you can connect to a power source, the battery’s thermal management mechanism can keep the battery comfortable. Even when the vehicle is not plugged in, certain EVs automatically use the thermal management system until capacity decreases to 15%, at which point things turn ugly.

3. Minimize time spent at 100% charge — Resist the temptation to plug in all night every night. If daily travel consumes 30% of the battery, using the middle 30% (between 70% and 40%) is healthier for the battery than continuously using the top 30%. At some point, smart chargers will interact with your schedule, anticipating daily driving needs and tailoring the need for charging accordingly.

4. Minimize time spent at 0% state of chargeBattery management systems often turn off an electric vehicle well before it reaches 0%. The larger danger is leaving a vehicle unplugged for an extended period of time, to the point where it self-discharges to zero and remains there indefinitely.

5. Avoid fast charging — Automakers understand that one of the keys to mainstream EV adoption is the ability to charge as quickly as filling a petrol tank, which is why they are hesitant to caution against high-voltage direct current charging. Furthermore, it is entirely suitable for recharging during infrequent lengthy trips or when an unforeseen appointment depletes your targeted 70% overnight charge. Make a point of not allowing it to become a habit.

6. Avoid discharging faster than necessary – Simply keep in mind that each one increments the eventual demise of your vehicle’s battery by a certain degree.

The Lithium-Ion Battery’s Operation

As the name implies, these batteries operate on positively charged lithium ions. These ions are electrostatically attracted to electrons. They cling to several anode molecules (which are often carbon) in a fully charged battery, along with an electron. When energy is extracted from the batteries, the electrons leave to perform their functions, while the lithium ions migrate through a specific separator that permits only these ions to pass. Once on the other side, they cling to cathode molecules (often metal oxides) alongside the electrons that just assisted in spinning a motor, lighting a lamp, or delivering a tweet.

Battery Aging and Degradation Types

The University of Michigan battery research took both calendar and cycle aging into account. Additionally, it focused on two primary types of battery degradation: capacity fade (when the amount of energy stored in amp-hours decreases) and power fade (when the internal resistance of the battery in ohms increases, reducing the rate at which energy can be pushed into or drawn out of the battery). Capacity fade affects the range and fuel consumption of an electric car; power fade affects the vehicle’s driving performance—acceleration, gradeability, and the rate at which it can be recharged via the brakes or a charger.

What Is the Actual Cause of Battery Degradation?

Lithium inventory loss occurs as a result of different processes that remove lithium ions from circulation. When lithium is plated onto the anode as a protective “solid electrolyte interphase” (SEI) layer during the initial charging cycles of a new battery’s life, it always depletes roughly 10% of available lithium. Loss of active material (LAM) occurs naturally as electrodes degrade, resulting in fewer sites for lithium ions to connect. Capacity fade will be influenced by whichever of the above is the worse, but both forms have an additive effect on causing power fade. Mechanical stress occurs when the electrodes undergo “lithiation” and “delithiation,” causing their volume to vary by up to 10%. This swelling and contracting of the SEI can result in “exfoliation” and cracking, which may remove further lithium from circulation when it re-plates.

6 Things EV Batteries Despise

1. High Temperature — Can deteriorate the materials used to bond the carbon or metal oxide materials to the electrodes, melt the separator, dissolve the cathode metals, dissolve the SEI layer, induce oxygen loss from the cathode’s metal oxide, and/or cause the electrolyte to decompose.

2. Low Temperature — Slows the rate of ion diffusion through the separator, primarily.

3. High State of Charge — Can induce corrosion of the aluminum current collector in the cathode, decomposition of the binder material, dissolution of the SEI layer, formation of gases with rising internal mechanical stress, and decomposition of the electrolyte.

4. Low State of Charge — Can corrode and dissolve transition metals in the anode’s copper current collector.

5. High Charging Current — Can retard ion diffusion and aggravate volume changes and mechanical strains caused by charging.

6. High Discharging Current — Exaggerates volume changes and mechanical strains caused by the discharge.

What Is the Chemistry Behind Electric Vehicle Batteries?

Cobalt, Nickel, Manganese, Graphite, and Silicon are the primary components used in EV batteries. The electric vehicle (EV) revolution is accelerating, with countries such as the United Kingdom and France imposing timelines for the phase-out of gasoline and diesel-powered automobiles. While electric vehicles are the apparent replacement, EV batteries have always been prohibitively expensive and inefficient. Until recently, electric vehicles struggled to drive more than 200 miles on a single charge, and the lengthy charging period makes long travels a nightmare. Now all of that is going to change.

What is the reason for the change? A breakthrough in the materials used in rechargeable electric vehicle batteries will boost their efficiency, enabling longer ranges and shorter charging periods.

The Five Primary Types of EV Batteries

At the moment, all five of the principal battery types used in electric vehicles are lithium-ion (Li-ion)-based:

1. Cobalt Lithium Oxide (LCO)

Although LCO batteries are primarily utilized in portable electronic devices such as smartphones and tablets, they can also be employed in smaller electric vehicles. It is a relatively inert and harmless substance.

The primary disadvantage is that they include considerable amounts of cobalt, an expensive metal with source issues. As a result, it is rarely employed in commercial electric vehicles.

2. Oxide of lithium, nickel, manganese, and cobalt (NMC)

NMC batteries are perhaps the most often utilized type in EVs. They have stable chemistry and are reasonably inexpensive compounds that include only a trace amount of cobalt. They work admirably, delivering a high energy density and charging more quickly than other batteries.

3. Aluminium-lithium-nickel-cobalt (NCA)

NCA batteries were the first commercial attempt to replace the prohibitively expensive cobalt in Li-ion batteries with nickel. They perform well, create a high amount of energy, and are quite inexpensive to produce. They have been extensively employed in portable devices and electric vehicles, while NMC batteries have supplanted them in recent years.

4. Iron-Lithium Phosphate Lithium-Iron Phosphate (LFP)

The most secure of all are Li-ion batteries, with an extremely stable chemical composition. Additionally, these batteries have a high energy density, which make it excellent for usage in bigger electric vehicles such as vans, buses, and trucks.

5. Manganese Lithium Oxide (LMO)

Due to its reasonable energy performance and inexpensive material cost, LMO batteries were among the first to be employed in early EVs. The disadvantage is that the cells are not as durable as those found in other battery types, resulting in a relatively short life cycle.

This article will examine some of the critical materials utilized to fabricate the various components of the most efficient and cost-effective batteries, such as NMC, and the reasons for their selection.

Electrolyte Substances

The electrolyte is a critical component of any battery, acting as a catalyst to boost conductivity during charging and discharging by assisting in the transport of ions from the cathode to the anode. Electrolytes can be liquid, such as sulphuric acid (H2SO4) or soluble salts, or solid, such as polycarbonate.

At the moment, all EV batteries are liquid-state, but solid-state batteries offer numerous advantages, including reduced size and weight, increased capacity, and lower manufacturing costs. Toyota recently stated its intention to release an electric vehicle using a solid-state battery by 2020.

The majority of EV battery electrolytes are lithium-ion based, which means they use lithium to conduct electricity between electrodes. While the mechanism is similar to that of a mobile phone battery, an EV battery typically uses 10,000 times the amount of lithium. As a result, the price of lithium has risen in lockstep with rising demand.

Materials for the Cathode


Cobalt was the first material to be used in Li-ion battery cathodes and has been utilized extensively in recent years. Due to cobalt’s compact compound molecular structure, it is perfect for maintaining a quick electron flow across the battery.

However, cobalt is becoming increasingly scarce due to abuse in the lithium-ion battery industry, which consumes 55% of world cobalt supplies. It is produced as a byproduct of copper and nickel mining and is extremely difficult to recover. Another issue is that cobalt is not easily recycled, requiring extensive refinement before it can be used again, making them prohibitively expensive.

As the cathode accounts for around 24% of the total cost of a Li-ion battery, less priced alternatives to cobalt have gained popularity in recent years.


Due to the increased endurance of nickel, it is required to manufacture EV battery cathodes. Nickel sulfate is utilized in the cathode and can be manufactured using either class 1 (premium) or class 2 nickel. Although class 2 nickel is less expensive as raw material, it must be dissolved and purified before being used in the cathode, which is a costly procedure. As a result, class 1 nickel is the preferred material.

Battery producers are eager to increase their use of nickel since it is significantly less expensive than cobalt. It is frequently used with trace amounts of cobalt to generate more economical cathodes. Thus, between 2018 and 2025, demand for class 1 nickel is predicted to expand at a 30% annual rate, potentially reaching 570 kT, or roughly 10 times the current demand. According to these projections, several recycling companies are showing interest in nickel recycling from old batteries to help satisfy demand.


Manganese with high purity and grade is frequently utilized to make the cathodes of NMC batteries. Additionally, it is occasionally utilized in the form of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (EMD), which is generated by dissolving manganese dioxide (MnO2) in sulphuric acid and passing a current between two electrodes.

Manganese dioxide dissolves in the liquid to form sulfate, which is subsequently deposited on the anode’s surface. The material is extracted and combined with a trace amount of cobalt to form the cathode in lithium-ion batteries.

Materials for Anodes


Graphite is the most often utilized material for the anodes of electric vehicle batteries. For an average-sized battery, 25kg of high purity graphite is required, and for large batteries, such as those used in the Tesla Model S, up to 54kg is required.

Manufacturing graphite anodes is a time-consuming and expensive procedure. It entails synthesizing graphite from calcined or cleaned petroleum coke (a by-product of oil refineries), a thin, gravelly substance bonded together with coal tar pitch. To maximize lithium-ion absorption, the anode must be made of high-quality graphite with a highly crystalline structure.

The mixture is then baked to create pure carbon, which has almost negligible conductivity. Following that, a process known as “graphitization” or magnetic induction begins, during which a low-voltage, high-current direct current charge is supplied through the furnace. Finally, wax or resin is added as a moisture barrier to the anode in liquid-state batteries to prevent it from degrading.


Silicon as an anode material has a variety of advantages over graphite, including lower material and manufacturing costs. Additionally, it can absorb and contain a far greater amount of lithium ions than graphite when charged. This boosts the battery’s efficiency, allowing EVs to go further on a single charge. Silicon anodes are still in research, but they are expected to be commercially available by 2020.

The Future of Battery Materials for Electric Vehicles

Numerous materials critical to the manufacture of EV batteries are in low supply. In tandem with the growing number of electric vehicles being created, the batteries that power them are undergoing fast innovation. The industry’s aims include developing materials that are inexpensive to produce as well as increasing battery efficiency, durability, and weight reduction.

For instance, silicon and graphene are potential candidates to replace graphite as the anode material of choice. Utilizing these materials will extend the range of cars on a single charge.

What Is a Solid-State Battery in the Context of an Electric Vehicle?

A solid-state battery is a rechargeable energy storage unit that is structurally and functionally comparable to the more well-known lithium-ion battery. The two are distinguished by the fact that a lithium-ion battery has a liquid electrolyte, but a solid-state battery, as the name implies, contains a solid electrolyte. This enables solid-state batteries to be lighter, more energy-dense, have a greater range, and recharge more quickly. The issue in commercializing solid-state batteries is to take technology that is already widely utilized in small devices and apply it to large-scale applications such as electric vehicles (EVs).

Which Battery Type Is Used in an Electric Car?

General Motors introduced the EV1 in 1996 as the world’s first mass-produced electric vehicle. The two-seat coupe, which was built from the ground up as an electric vehicle, had a range of 78 miles, accelerated to 50 mph in 6.3 seconds, and required more than 5 hours to fully charge. It was powered by a lead-acid battery.

Three years later, the second-generation EV1 debuted with a nickel-metal hydride battery pack and a roughly doubled driving range of 142 miles.

While the EV1 was being phased out, Tesla Motors joined the automotive industry with the Tesla Roadster, the world’s first mass-market battery-electric vehicle to use lithium-ion batteries. The rest, as they say, is history.

How Do Lithium-Ion Batteries Work?

Lithium-ion batteries have established themselves as the industry standard for powering a wide variety of devices, ranging from consumer electronics such as cellphones and laptops to mobility and transportation such as bicycles and automobiles.

Unlike traditional lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries use a liquid electrolyte to regulate the energy transfer between the cathode and anode. The advantages of lithium-ion batteries include increased battery life, improved performance in extreme temperatures, recyclable components, and a higher energy density. The energy density of a battery refers to the amount of energy it can store per unit weight. Simply put, the greater the density, the greater the output power.

Despite their numerous advantages, lithium-ion batteries have several disadvantages. Although lighter than prior battery technologies, lithium-ion batteries are nevertheless rather hefty due to their liquid interiors. Additionally, they function better when packaged in stackable packets, which adds additional weight. Moreover, the electrolytes are flammable, can become unstable in severe temperatures, and can result in explosions or fires if damaged or charged improperly. There is no shortage of news accounts ranging from cellphone malfunctions to airplanes catching fire as a result of battery problems.

How Does a Solid-State Battery Work?

Solid-state batteries are more stable and compact by default because they do not contain a sloshing, flammable liquid electrolyte. The solid electrolyte can be made of a variety of common materials, such as ceramics or glass.

For years, solid-state batteries have been utilized in small devices such as pacemakers, RFID tags, and wearable gadgets. With fewer components, fewer things can go wrong. Along with increased safety, compactness, and stability, solid-state batteries in EVs would enable faster charging times, increased travel range, and increased energy density. Solid-state batteries can charge to 80% in 15 minutes and are less prone to strain after numerous charging cycles. After 1,000 cycles, a lithium-ion battery begins to degrade and loses capacity. On the other hand, a solid-state battery will retain 90% of its capacity even after 5,000 cycles.

When Are Solid-State Batteries Going To Be Used in Electric Vehicles?

Despite its numerous advantages, expanding production up to the level required for use in EVs remains an expensive operation. Remember, solid-state batteries are well-known for their use in smartwatches and heart rate regulators.

The development expenses and production problems associated with creating solid-state batteries for mass-market EVs are significant disadvantages. However, just as lithium-ion batteries have become more economical, the hope is that solid-state batteries will follow suit. And automakers are investing heavily in the technology, particularly with the proposed zero-emission brand strategy and EV-only lineups.

BMW and Ford have invested $130 million in Solid Power, a solid-state battery firm based in Colorado. Hyundai is investing $100 million in SolidEnergy Systems, a spin-off from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In collaboration with Panasonic, Toyota announced the premiere of a prototype SUV powered by solid-state batteries this year. Additionally, General Motors and Volkswagen are investing.

Audi, Bentley, Dodge, Jaguar, Jeep, Land Rover, Lotus, Mazda, MINI, Nissan, and Volvo have all announced their electrification intentions and zero-emissions goal dates. Some have even gone so far as to declare that gasoline and diesel engines would be phased out of their lineups by 2050.

However, EVs must be profitable for automakers, inexpensive for customers, and capable of completely replacing vehicles equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE) pound for pound. Even though there are more electric vehicle options than ever before, gasoline-powered vehicles continue to dominate the market. After all, fossil fuels are still inexpensive, vehicle options are many, and refueling takes only a few minutes.

Nonetheless, the appeal of solid-state batteries is self-evident, and their potential may compel manufacturers to maintain their manufacturing commitments. Electric vehicles are already on par with or outperforming their internal combustion engine equivalents in terms of design. One needs to eliminate range anxiety, maintain price parity, and offer compelling performance, then perhaps people will truly embrace an all-EV future.

Future EV Battery Technologies: Which Are Easily Recharged and Long-Lasting?

While smartphones, smart homes, and even smart wearables are becoming increasingly sophisticated, they are still limited by power. The battery has not progressed in decades. However, we are on the precipice of a power shift.

The limits of lithium-ion batteries are well known to large technology and automobile industries. While CPUs and operating systems are becoming more efficient at conserving power, we still only get a day or two out of a smartphone before it needs to be recharged.

While it may be some time before we receive a week’s worth of battery life from our phones, progress is being made. Here is a list of the top battery discoveries that could be available soon in EV.

Structural Batteries Could Pave the Way for Ultralight Electric Vehicles

For many years, researchers at the Chalmers University of Technology have been investigating the use of batteries not only for power but also as structural components. The benefit of this is that a product can have fewer structural components because the battery has the strength to fulfill those jobs. The latest battery, which uses lithium iron phosphate as the positive electrode and carbon fiber as the negative electrode, has a stiffness of 25GPa, albeit there is still more work to be done to boost the energy capacity.

Carbon Nanotube Electrode That Is Vertically Aligned

NAWA Technologies has created and patented an Ultra-Fast Carbon Electrode, which it claims will revolutionize the battery business. It employs a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) design, and NAWA claims it can enhance battery power tenfold, energy storage by a factor of three, and battery lifespan by five times. Electric vehicles, according to the business, will benefit the most because they will lower the carbon footprint and cost of battery production while enhancing performance. According to NAWA, a 1000km range might become the norm, with charging times reduced to 5 minutes to achieve an 80 percent charge. The technology might be in use as early as 2023.

SVOLT Introduces Cobalt-Free EV Batteries

While the emission-reducing features of electric vehicles are universally acknowledged, there is still debate about the batteries, namely the use of metals such as cobalt. SVOLT, based in Changzhou, China, has announced the production of cobalt-free batteries for the EV industry. Aside from lowering the rare earth metals, the company claims that they have a higher energy density, which might result in electric car ranges of up to 800km (500 miles), while also extending battery life and enhancing safety. We don’t know where these batteries will be seen, but the company has verified that it is working with a prominent European manufacturer.

Another Step Toward Silicon Anode Lithium-Ion Batteries

To address the issue of unstable silicon in lithium-ion batteries, researchers at the University of Eastern Finland created a hybrid anode utilizing mesoporous silicon microparticles and carbon nanotubes. The ultimate goal is to replace graphite as the anode in batteries with silicon, which has 10 times the capacity. The use of this hybrid material improves battery performance, while the silicon material is manufactured sustainably from barley husk ash.

IBM’s Battery Is Made From Seawater and Outperforms Lithium-Ion Batteries

IBM Research has found novel battery chemistry that is free of heavy metals like nickel and cobalt and has the potential to outperform lithium-ion. According to IBM Research, this chemistry has never been employed in a battery before, and the ingredients can be harvested from seawater.

The battery’s performance is promising, with IBM Research claiming that it can outperform lithium-ion in a variety of ways, including lower manufacturing costs, faster charging, and higher power and energy densities. All of this is available in a battery with low electrolyte flammability.

According to IBM Research, these benefits will make its new battery technology ideal for electric vehicles, and it is collaborating with Mercedes-Benz and others to develop this technology into a viable commercial battery.

Battery Management System From Panasonic

While lithium-ion batteries are ubiquitous and expanding in use, managing them, especially recognizing when they have reached the end of their useful life, is difficult. Panasonic has developed a new battery management technique in collaboration with Professor Masahiro Fukui of Ritsumeikan University that will make it much easier to monitor batteries and identify the residual value of lithium-ion in them.

Panasonic claims that their new technology can be readily implemented with a tweak to the battery management system, making it easier to monitor and analyze batteries with many stacked cells, such as those seen in electric vehicles. Panasonic claims that this method will aid in the drive toward sustainability by better managing the reuse and recycling of lithium-ion batteries.

Graphene Batteries From Grabat

Graphene batteries have the potential to be among the best available. Grabat has created graphene batteries that might provide electric vehicles with a driving range of up to 500 kilometers on a single charge.

The batteries, according to Graphenano, can be charged to full capacity in only a few minutes and charge and discharge 33 times faster than lithium-ion batteries. Discharge is especially important for items like autos, which need a lot of force to drive away quickly.

There’s no news on whether Grabat batteries are being used in any devices, although the company does provide batteries for vehicles, drones, motorcycles, and even the home.

The Aluminum-Air Battery Has a Range of 1,100 Miles on a Single Charge

An automobile can be driven 1,100 kilometers on a single charge of its battery. The secret to this incredible range is a battery technology known as aluminum-air, which takes oxygen from the air to feed its cathode. This makes it significantly lighter than liquid-filled lithium-ion batteries, allowing the car to travel farther.

For decades, battery researchers have been attempting to crack the code for a new battery that can surpass lithium-ion batteries – the technology that has catapulted the electric vehicle industry to where it is now.

Global automakers predict that these new EV Battery technologies will lead to electric vehicles with substantially longer ranges, that can be made at a lower cost, are safer to drive, have longer lifespans, and support faster charging.

How Online Gaming Has Helped Millions

The past few years have been a struggle for everyone. It has been hard to find ways of keeping yourself entertained and to find something that will help you switch off from day-to-day life. Online gaming – and especially online casinos – have helped a lot of people to have fun and feel excitement once again. The good thing about online gaming is that you can play it from anywhere and everywhere. You can see some of the most visited platforms here; these platforms have seen a huge increase in their users over the past few years.

Most people turned to online gaming when the pandemic began, it is seen as a great way to socialise with friends or family and keep entertained. It is not just online casinos that have helped so many people but so have games consoles, smartphone app stores, and many more. 

It is a win-win situation really, with online gaming and online casinos benefiting from gaining more users; and it also benefits the players as it is a way for them to have a break and be in their own comfort zone. Online gaming has always been a popular thing for many people to do, many of us come home from work or from school and will use online gaming to unwind and relax. It is a great way to keep up your social life as well, you can play online with friends. Online casinos now have chat rooms on the games that you are playing so you can speak to new people and invite your friends into the games that you are playing. No one thought that online gaming would become so popular because of the pandemic, there is more information on this here.

It is thought that online gaming is going to continue to rise especially since casinos have closed the doors but so also have games rooms. Gaming from home now is seen as one of the most popular things to be doing, it has many benefits and has helped so many people who may have struggled without it.

The choice of online games to play now is endless, you can near enough play any kind of casino game online, any kind of sports game is now available to play on gaming consoles, and much, much more. We can expect to see over the next few years online gaming really peak and it is said to become one of the most popular things to be doing now.

Why Fuel Cells Will Rule the Automotive Future


Several vehicles don’t run on gasoline anymore. Nowadays, people buy cars that run partially or fully on electricity. Various forces are driving this massive transformation. For starters, electric vehicles emit fewer pollutants that harm local air quality – and less CO2, which is a major contributor to global warming. Another reason to prefer electric automobiles is politico-economic security. Petroleum is abundant in only a few places on earth. Countries without these natural resources will remain politically and economically disadvantaged if they continue to use gasoline or diesel automobiles.

Another argument is that exploitable petroleum reserves are dwindling. Prices will increase whenever supply cannot match up with demand. So, it’s no surprise that the switch to electric vehicles is accelerating.

Types of Electric Vehicles

There are three types of electric vehicles. The first category is Hybrids, which mix batteries, electric motors, and internal combustion engines. Despite their many advantages, including high efficiency, plug-in hybrids get much of their power from petroleum-based fuels.

The second category includes Battery-Electric Vehicles (BEVs), such as the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S. While BEVs rely on fossil fuels to charge their batteries, they utilize that energy more efficiently than cars with internal combustion engines. The grid is also switching to more renewable energy, lowering BEVs’ carbon footprint.

A third developing category is Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs), which will probably be the most popular electric vehicle in the future. Forward-thinking automakers are now creating BEVs and FCEVs, but there is tremendous controversy and competitive posturing, adding to the confusion.

How These Cars Function

An electrochemical reaction generates electricity directly rather than using combustion to drive pistons that power an electric generator, as in a hybrid car. This is done by mixing compressed hydrogen gas with oxygen from the air. The reaction produces electricity for the car, and water as a byproduct, which is expelled through the exhaust along with nitrogen from the air. No combustion means no high temperatures and no nitrogen oxides, a smog-causing contaminant from conventional automobiles. No hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, or carbon dioxide are discharged from the exhaust because the gasoline contains no carbon.

A fuel-cell electric car is also more than three times as efficient as a typical gasoline-powered vehicle. It has a comparable range and refilling time to conventional cars, and its drivetrain is almost vibration-free.

Since June 2014, Californians have been able to lease a fuel-cell Hyundai Tucson SUV. Toyota has been selling and leasing an FCEV here since October 2015: the Mirai four-door sedan.

Fueling Stations

A car alone isn’t enough; you also need a fueling station. The California Energy Commission has built the necessary hydrogen-fueling infrastructure. H2USA, a Department of Energy effort, is addressing the need for a nationwide hydrogen-fueling infrastructure. Hydrogen-fueling stations are available in Europe, and a program called Hydrogen Mobility Europe is working to expand their presence.

Energy-Saving Feature

While Hyundai, Toyota, and Honda’s FCEVs are new to the market, most of their technology is shared with existing BEVs. FCEVs and BEVs both have electric motors and batteries. A crucial energy-saving feature of electric vehicles is regenerative braking. Where they differ essentially is in the source of electricity, the time it takes to recharge or refuel, driving range, and vehicle scalability.

First, consider the power source. Electricity is generated elsewhere and stored in a battery pack for BEVs, whereas FCEVs are fueled by hydrogen, which is converted to electricity by a fuel-cell engine onboard. Despite the fact that the hydrogen fuel cell generates energy, FCEVs require a battery pack to deliver surges to the drive motor and absorb regenerative braking electricity. FCEV batteries, unlike BEV batteries, are tiny, similar to those used in hybrid vehicles today.

Most BEVs have a range of 65-320 kilometers (40-200 miles), depending on the type, cooling and heating loads, driving speed, and use of electric accessories. For instance, electric car enthusiasts can buy a Tesla Model S or Model X with a reported range of 480 km. That’s close to the range of FCEVs and conventional vehicles, which can go 480-640 kilometers on a single tank.

Charging a BEV takes an hour to 4 hours with a high-voltage source and over 6 hours with a typical 120-volt household outlet. Cars with DC “fast” charging take about 30 minutes. An FCEV can refuel with hydrogen in about 5 minutes.

BEVs are ideal for light-duty vehicles and are increasingly being used in delivery trucks and buses. The issue with using batteries to power larger, longer-range vehicles is that greater battery mass is required. To maintain the same performance, the car requires a larger motor, stronger suspension, and better brakes, all of which add weight, requiring larger batteries. It’s a vicious cycle that can’t be sustained when creating a huge vehicle with the range drivers expect. Fuel cells, on the other hand, can power everything from a little car to a long-distance tractor-trailer.

What happened at Nikola Motor Co., which planned to build a BEV tractor-trailer, exemplifies the capability gap. After realizing the challenges of designing such a vehicle, the truck’s designers switched to a hydrogen fuel cell. This month, Nikola One, a fuel-cell-powered tractor-trailer, was unveiled.

The majority of car customers entering the showroom will choose an FCEV as their primary mode of transportation, and due to range and recharging limits, they will consider a BEV primarily as a secondary option.

But some vehemently disagree. Among them is Tesla CEO Elon Musk, who has mocked FCEVs as “fool-cell vehicles”.

Elon Musk’s Stand

Musk stated three reasons for his stance in 2015: concerns about hydrogen safety, lack of fueling infrastructure, and non-renewability. Musk’s viewpoint may be influenced by his desire to promote Tesla’s new BEV line, a bias that harms both the public and the environment.

So, let’s analyze why Musk is wrong. First, his concerns about hydrogen are exaggerated. Whether it’s hydrogen, gasoline, diesel, natural gas, or electricity stored in a battery, all vehicle energy sources present safety concerns. Caution, codes, and standards must be applied to each.

Where Hydrogen Is a Winner

Except for specific qualities that make hydrogen safer than the gasoline with which we’ve grown familiar over the decades, hydrogen is lighter than air and evaporates rapidly. Unlike gasoline, which can build under a car and, if ignited, engulf the entire vehicle.

The final winner will be decided by consumers based on how each type of EV is promoted. Tesla certainly has a head start on promoting BEVs in a big way, but sooner or later, the long-term sustainability and scalability of the FCEV will mean it will have its day. And sooner rather than later is probably better for Mother Earth.

Full Specifications for the Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 3 and Galaxy Z Flip 3 Have Been Leaked – Here’s a Rundown of All the New Features

The Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 3 and Galaxy Z Flip 3 will be unveiled on Wednesday at Samsung Unpacked 2021, but there will be many surprises. It appears WinFuture has detailed specifications for both the next-generation Fold and Flip after official-looking brochures of the foldable leaked yesterday.

The recent disclosures aren’t particularly unexpected, but they confirm previous reports and give precise technical details rather than a general overview.

The Rumored Specifications for the Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 3

The Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 3 is rumored to be powered by Qualcomm’s latest Snapdragon 888 CPU, with 12GB RAM and 256GB or 512GB of internal storage depending on price. That said, there will be no microSD card slot, according to WinFuture.

WinFuture reports that the Galaxy Z Fold 3 would have a 6.2-inch exterior panel with 2,268 x 832 resolution and a 7.6-inch 2,208 x 1,768 tablet when opened. This new Gorilla Glass Victus should be twice as scratch-resistant as the previous model.

According to Samsung’s latest claim, that’s the equivalent of opening and closing the smartphone over 100 times every day for five years. It should also be waterproof to IPX8 this time, as previously stated.

Three 12-megapixel sensors are said to be in the Galaxy Z Fold 3. An f/1.8 primary lens is expected, with f/2.2 ultra-wide-angle and f/2.4 zoom lenses. To use the Galaxy Fold 3 in both folded and unfolded modes requires two front-facing cameras. An under-screen camera with a 4MP sensor is rumored for the latter and a 10MP sensor for the former. It will be powered by a 4,400mAh-Batterie and weighs 271 grams, less than the 9.9 ounces Galaxy Z Fold 2.

Samsung Galaxy Z Flip 3 Specifications

The Samsung Galaxy Z Flip 3 contains the same rumored specs as the Galaxy Z, like a Snapdragon 888 processor and IPX8 water protection, but it’s not as powerful.

According to reports, the Z Flip 3 has 8GB RAM instead of 12GB on the Z Fold 3 and only has a 12MP wide lens and a 12MP ultra-wide sensor. Expect a wide-angle lens. No microSD card expansion is also rumored, leaving storage at 128 or 256GB.

However, while there are still two screens, the design is a flip phone. The cover display will allow you to preview notifications, take selfies, control music, and more. When open, the panel should measure 6.7 inches (2640 x 1080). Both are 120Hz AMOLED displays.

The smaller form factor should mean a smaller battery, with a 3,300mAh cell powering the gadget, while the complete phone is believed to weigh only 183 grams (6.4 ounces).


Aside from the technical details, the actual enhancement should be seen when these phones are used. However, there’s still no word on the Galaxy Z Fold 3 or Galaxy Z Flip 3’s ultimate retail price.

It should be a fun show, especially if Samsung unveils the Galaxy Watch 4 and Galaxy Buds 2 along with these phones.

All Employees at Tesla’s Nevada Battery Facility Will Be Required To Wear Masks


Tesla looks to have gone a long way after breaking local COVID-19 safety regulations. According to the Wall Street Journal, starting August 9th, Tesla will force all employees at its Nevada Gigafactory to wear masks, regardless of their vaccination status. Previously, employees at the battery facility only needed to wear masks if they weren’t completely immunized.

Tesla Takes a Tough Stand

In the aftermath of the more easily transmissible Delta form of SARS-CoV-2, the tipsters stated Tesla was toughening its policy, including revised CDC advice urging that vaccinated individuals wear masks indoors. Although complete immunization minimizes the risk of infection and symptoms, there is evidence that breakthrough cases (infections among vaccinated persons) can easily spread the virus to others.

The firm hasn’t replied to requests for comment, and it’s unlikely to do so when its public relations division is discreetly dismantled in autumn 2020.

Elon Musk’s Threat

Tesla has been a week behind its Detroit-based competitors, who reintroduced mask requirements a week earlier. It’s a far cry from the EV manufacturer’s stance in May 2020, when it resisted an Alameda County lockout and kept its Fremont vehicle facility running. Elon Musk has threatened to relocate Tesla’s headquarters and sue the state of California. Musk stated he caught COVID-19 in November 2020 as a result of the relocation, which may have resulted in further illnesses at the Fremont facility.

Tesla Softens Approach

Tesla will be able to comply more easily this time since its plant will remain operational. When it comes to keeping up with demand for its automobiles, the automotive company can’t afford to put authorities to the test. Nonetheless, Tesla’s alleged mask order stands in stark contrast to the company’s prior approach, in that it is voluntarily taking action rather than fighting back.

The Emergence of the $100 Smartphone: The Start of a New Era?

It’s been nearly 17 years since Nicholas Negroponte revealed his grandiose proposal to offer computers to children all around the world in order to combat digital illiteracy while simultaneously revolutionizing the business. The final product, the OLPC XO laptop, was meant to cost $100 and is widely seen as a commercial failure, with just a few million computers sold since its start.

However, it is its legacy that has helped create the society we live in, compelling computer makers to consider more cheap gadgets that are untethered and accessible to the public. That brought us Netbooks (with the Eee PC making an impact in 2007), Chromebooks, tablets, and eventually, owing to economies of scale, at least one $100 smartphone – a monument to the journey since the OLPC first captured the imagination of many.

A Smartphone for $100 That Is Truly Usable

The Doogee X96 Pro, which runs Android 11, does not appear to be your typical low-cost tablet or affordable smartphone. It’s a long cry from the XO laptop (with a monochrome screen) that made news back in the day, with four cameras on the rear and a 6.5-inch HD+ display.

The X96 Pro, which sets the bar for entry-level, low-cost smartphones, is likewise powered by an eight-core ARM-based CPU, 4GB of RAM, and 64GB of internal storage. In comparison, the original Netbook featured 4GB of internal storage and technology capable of serving as a web hosting server.

Connectivity has experienced the most fundamental shifts over the last decade, and 4G LTE is now available even at this price range, along with dual SIM slots and fast Wi-Fi, which are must-haves.

What Can a $100 Smartphone Teach Us About Computing’s Future?

The objectives of OLPC were laudable, but at the end of the day, stone-hearted capitalism was where the answer for a completely new, ultra-affordable, high-performance computing platform that is safe and secure to use and has assured worldwide availability would come from.

So-called 8464 (8-core, 4GB RAM, 64GB storage) devices will be the basis for ubiquitous personal computing in 2021 and for the foreseeable future, whether for individuals or enterprises. While the X96 Pro is not technically a business smartphone, the existence of a fingerprint sensor and Android 11 implies that it is a safe platform in principle.

Post-COVID Scenario

The slow worldwide recovery post-Covid may hasten the transition to simpler devices like the X96 Pro, which are adaptable and powerful enough to realize Negroponte’s and the OLPC’s enterprise. With the emergence of free online courses, an abundance of high-resolution, professionally-produced video content, and massive amounts of text, never before in human history has so much knowledge been made so easily accessible to so many people at such a low cost.

WhatsApp CEO and Other Technology Professionals Retaliate Against Apple’s Child Safety Initiative

Over the weekend, an open letter with over 4,000 signatures circulated online, adding to the chorus of voices expressing alarm and dismay about Apple’s latest Child Safety measures. The Apple Privacy Letter urged the iPhone manufacturer to “reconsider its technological rollout” or risk undoing “decades of effort by engineers, researchers, and policy advocates” on privacy safeguards.

Apple’s Strategy

Unveiled on Thursday, Apple’s strategy entails comparing hashes of photos uploaded to iCloud to a database containing hashes of known CSAM images. Apple claims that approach allows it to keep user data encrypted and perform the analysis on-device while still reporting users to authorities if they are sharing child abuse images. Another component of Apple’s Kid Safety policy is the ability to notify parents if their child under the age of 13 sends or views photographs with sexually explicit material. Apple noted in an internal document that users would be “concerned about the implications” of the systems.

WhatsApp’s Stand

In a Twitter Thread, WhatsApp CEO Will Cathcart stated that his firm would not implement the security measures, calling Apple’s approach “extremely worrisome.” Cathcart stated that WhatsApp’s method to combat child exploitation, which partially relies on user reports, retains encryption the same way as Apple’s does and has resulted in the business submitting over 400,000 incidents to the National Center for Missing Exploited Children by 2020. (Apple is also collaborating with the Center on CSAM detection.)

Apple’s Response

Facebook and WhatsApp have reason to be angry with Apple over privacy issues. Apple’s changes to ad tracking in iOS 14.5 sparked a spat between the two firms, with Facebook purchasing newspaper advertisements denouncing Apple’s privacy restrictions as damaging to small businesses. Apple responded by claiming that the update “merely demands” that consumers be offered the option of being monitored or not.

Is the Hashing Mechanism Faulty?

Edward Snowden, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), academics, and others are among those who have expressed alarm over Apple’s policies. Before the piece was made public, Matthew Green, an associate professor at Johns Hopkins University, voiced his opposition. He tweeted about Apple’s ambitions and how governments and other parties might exploit the hashing mechanism.

The EFF issued a statement blasting Apple’s proposal, describing it as a “thoroughly documented, highly thought-out, and narrowly-scoped backdoor.” The EFF’s press statement goes into depth on how the organization feels Apple’s Child Safety features might be misused by governments and how they harm user privacy.

Kendra Albert, a teacher at Harvard’s Cyberlaw Clinic, has a thread on the possible hazards to LGBT children and Apple’s early ambiguity about age ranges for the parental alerts tool. Snowden retweeted the Financial Times piece regarding the system, describing what Apple is doing in his own words.

Voices Batting for Apple

However, not every reaction has been negative. Ashton Kutcher, who has been an advocate for the abolition of child sex trafficking since 2011, considers Apple’s work a “huge step forward” in the fight against CSAM.

Which EV Battery Format Will Win the Market?

When it comes to battery format (EV Battery Cell), there are three basic types: cylindrical, prismatic, and pouch cells.

Cylindrical cells, with their cylindrical shape and construction, were among the earliest types of mass-produced batteries, and they continue to be manufactured in large quantities and dominate specific applications to this day. Prismatic cells, on the other hand, have grown in popularity because of their enormous capacity, small profile, and efficient use of space. Because of its prismatic design, it is simple to link several cells together to form a larger battery pack. Finally, pouch cells are renowned for having a lighter construction due to the use of a sealed flexible foil as the container.

While each form of a battery cell is better suited to different scenarios, despite its limitations, the cylindrical cell has shown to be the most practical and versatile in many ways. However, due to their flexibility and overall optimization, pouch cells are gaining popularity and are poised to dominate the EV Battery Cell industry.

The overall consumption in the passenger car market in 2020 was 147 GWh for $17 billion. Based on the top six companies: LG, CATL, Panasonic, Samsung, BYD, and SKI, the market share was split as follows: prismatic 40%, pouch 35%, and cylindrical 15%. The remaining 10% of Tier 2 players may likewise be divided across the three forms.

The Cylindrical Cell

According to recent research, the worldwide Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Battery (EV Cell) market in 2019 was worth USD 7975.1 million. Due to its great mechanical stability and design, the cylindrical cell is typically manufactured using optimal automated methods and techniques, enhancing consistency and decreasing unit cost. Indeed, numerous manufacturers may supply this sort of EV battery cell, resulting in product consistency. This implies that if a company’s supplier is unable to supply for any reason, they will almost certainly locate another that produces the identical product in terms of performance and dimensions. This makes switching easy.

However, due to the cylindrical cell’s form, it is not feasible to completely utilize the space available in the battery pack, resulting in a lower cylindrical cell packing density. This is why cylindrical cells have reached their limit in terms of performance and optimization, raising concerns about their suitability for next-generation EV batteries.

Another restriction is that you need a considerably higher cell count: even with a 4680 with 25 Ah capacity, as Tesla demonstrated last year, the cell count is four times that of a 100 Ah flat cell for the same pack capacity, which increases the overhead for BMS, TMS, and so on.

The Prismatic Cell

The prismatic cell’s packing benefits are based on its tiered approach to materials, which is used mostly in consumer electronics vehicles. Their shape is similar to a box of chewing gum or a little chocolate bar, and while they come in a variety of sizes, there is no uniform standard, and each maker creates their own.

The Pouch Cell

The soft aluminum coating enables a lighter battery and, depending on the application, more flexible size and available space. This results in flexible EV cells that can readily fit into a particular product’s available area. This corresponds to 90-95 percent packing efficiency and higher energy density in terms of space optimization.

Pouch cells have the potential to match next-generation performance batteries by shifting to more practical designs, therefore accelerating the electrification demands of EVs and consumer devices.

For instance, in Tesla’s first EV, they employed a large number of cylindrical cells at the same time to generate a large amount of energy at a cheap cost. Indeed, Tesla purchased low-cost commodity batteries (18650 cylindrical from Panasonic) and employed a large number of them in conjunction with a high-quality battery management system (energy management software).

One significant drawback of the pouch cell format is the absence of uniformity, which affects production costs and selling prices. As the pouch cell develops further, it will become more generally available, acceptance will rise, and it will be more extensively utilized in vehicles. Standardization will enhance production, efficiency, decrease costs, and increase volumes while improving performance.

Furthermore, the pouch cell requires further optimization because of its reduced mechanical resistance and possible expansion due to aging-induced by gas formation.

While the cylindrical cell has hit its limit in terms of increasing energy density, it will not disappear from the market. Instead, the pouch cell will have a larger share of the battery industry, especially as more research and development is invested in it and it becomes more mass-produced.

Pouch cells are also expected to be the most widely utilized since the solid-state battery, often regarded as the holy grail of EV batteries, can only operate in the pouch cell configuration. As solid-state becomes commercially viable, which experts predict will happen between 2025 and 2030, the industry will embrace it, which means that batteries will be converted to the pouch shape.

Looking ahead, it looks that when the pouch cell gets improved and mass-produced, flatforms (pouch and prismatic) will be the most popular, particularly for automotive and energy storage applications.

Battery Formats and New 3D Architecture Technologies

The innovative technique developed by Addionics is compatible with all formats, enhances mechanical stability by embedding layers, and offers extra advantages for pouch cells. As a result, it makes sense to pay special attention to the pouch cell, which gains the most from Addionics and is also one of the most popular forms for next-generation EV battery cells. This, along with the intrinsic characteristics of pouch cells, results in one of the most versatile and powerful batteries available.

Xiaomi Has Taken the Lead in Smartphone Sales, and Samsung Appears To Be Displeased

Xiaomi has surpassed Apple as the world’s largest smartphone vendor for the first time, having passed Samsung in the second quarter of 2021. Xiaomi tops the global market with 17.1 percent, Samsung is second with 15.7 percent, and Apple is third with 14.3 percent, according to Counterpoint Research’s July numbers.

Xiaomi’s market share climbed by 26% month over month, according to Counterpoint. Tarun Pathak, Director of Research at Counterpoint, explains why: “Since Huawei’s slump began, Xiaomi has made persistent and aggressive attempts to fill the void left by this loss. The OEM has expanded in traditional Huawei and HONOR markets, including Europe, China, the Middle East, and Africa. In June, Xiaomi was bolstered further by the revivals in China, Europe, and India, as well as Samsung’s drop owing to supply chain issues.”

The Reason Behind Huawei’s Declining Sales Graph

Huawei’s market share has been dropping as the company has felt the effects of the multi-year US export prohibition. Huawei continues to make paper announcements, but the main brand lacks chips and software, and the sale of its sub-brand, Honor, is dwindling.

Xiaomi presently offers 58 smartphone models on its global website, covering every market segment. Its portfolio includes smartphones priced under $100 and cutting-edge foldable such as the Mi Mix Fold and premium phones such as the Mi 11 Ultra, which features a second back screen integrated into the camera hump and a big 50 MP 1/1.12-inch sensor. Xiaomi is a market leader in its native China, the world’s largest smartphone market, and a significant player in India. The firm does not sell its mobile phones in the United States.

Hurdles Faced by Samsung

According to Counterpoint, Samsung, which Xiaomi surpassed in Q2-21, is currently facing challenges due to the debut of COVID-19 in Vietnam. Along with China and the company’s home country of South Korea, Samsung has a sizable phone manufacturing presence in Vietnam. According to Counterpoint Senior Analyst Varun Mishra, “Samsung’s production was affected in June, resulting in device shortages across channels. Xiaomi gained the most from Samsung’s A series’ short-term gap due to its excellent mid-range portfolio and broad market penetration. Once Samsung regains its footing, it is likely that the ranks will reshuffle”.

What Irks Samsung

Despite Counterpoint’s assurances that Samsung’s difficulties are transient, the business appears unhappy with its market position. According to South Korean news site The Elec, Samsung Electronics is “extending its management examination” of the mobile market. Samsung does this, Elec reports, “when the top leadership believes there is a problem with a certain business unit”.

According to the publication, “Samsung is highly likely to miss its Galaxy S21 sales target,” even though the device has sold 13.5 million devices in the first half of the year. The S20 sold in the mid-20 million levels during the same period, while previous Galaxy S models were in the 30 million range. While customers may be keeping their smartphones for longer periods, Xiaomi does not appear to be having these concerns.

The Lee Factor

Samsung is in limbo, as its chairman, Lee Jae-Yong (a.k.a. Jay Y. Lee), remains imprisoned on bribery charges. Lee has a parole hearing this month that might result in his release, and some South Koreans are even asking for Lee’s pardon, given the corporation’s importance to the South Korean economy (it accounts for around 15% of GDP). The Elec speculates that with Samsung’s CEO set to be released soon, a study of the company’s various divisions may already be underway to enable Lee to make decisions quickly following his release.

Common Car Accident Injuries

Car accidents are rampant in the United States. Each year at least three million people sustain non-fatal injuries in road crashes. As a result, car accident victims incur many losses, bills, and some sustain life-threatening injuries that affect their lives and those of their loved ones.

There are several laws and traffic rules in place to prevent motor vehicle accidents. However, this does not stop them from occurring. If you or your loved one has been in a car accident, you should consult a car accident law firm in your area to know what the law says and if you can claim damages.

Every accident is unique. The types of damages you can claim, and the settlement amount depends on your state laws and the severity of the injuries. Remember, whether you have sustained a minor or major injury, it is vital to immediately seek medical treatment. 

Here are some of the common car accident injuries:

Whiplash or Neck Injuries

Whiplash is a traumatic injury that mainly affects the ligaments, muscles, and spinal discs in the neck area. This injury is associated with several accidents, including fender benders. 

The injury is caused by sudden movement or jerking motion during an accident. Victims can experience slight memory loss, chronic pain, loss of concentration, and problems with sleep. 

Get the right treatment for whiplash to avoid severe pain.


You can expect to sustain some lacerations and bruises after an accident. Soft tissue wounds can heal quite fast with proper medical attention. However, deep cuts and bruises, especially if you suffer a cut to internal organs and muscles, can be catastrophic if not attended to immediately.

Also, depending on the severity of the contusion, a victim can experience severe bleeding and shock. 

Chest and Abdominal Injuries

The accident’s impact can cause a tear or rupture to the lungs, kidneys, heart, diaphragm, spleen, bowel, liver, or any other internal organ. You may not realize you have an internal injury immediately. However, if left untreated, these internal injuries can be fatal. This is why you should see a doctor immediately after an accident, whether you feel hurt or not. 

Broken Bones

Fractures or broken bones are common injuries in car accidents. These injuries can include a broken pelvis, arms, collarbones, and legs, among others. The injury may result in permanent disability if not well treated. 

Fractures take longer to heal if the victim is older. If a broken rib punctures an internal organ, the victim can end up with a life-threatening complication.


When a victim gets in contact with a hot part of the car or the car bursts into flames while they are still trapped in it, they can end up with second or third-degree burns. If the burns are deep, victims might require extensive treatment, corrective surgeries, and years of expensive treatments to heal. 

The fire may also cause lung damage.

Traumatic Brain Injuries

A traumatic brain injury (TBI) can either be mild or chronic. A mild TBI can heal after a couple of months with the right treatment, while a severe TBI can cause several complications and can also be fatal.

Paralysis and Spine injuries

If you injure your spinal cord in an accident, you can end up with paralysis on the legs and arms. This is known as paraplegia. Back injuries that affect the spinal cord, vertebrae, or spinal discs can cause immobility and chronic pain.

Get Legal Help for Your Injuries

If you or your loved one has sustained an injury after a car accident, you may have a right to claim damages. Compensation will help you deal with the economic and non-economic losses and help you get back on your feet. Talk to a car accident lawyer in your area to review your case, file a claim, and ensure you get fair compensation.

Thirty Years Later, a Look Back at the Very First Website Ever Launched

On 6 August 1991, the world’s first website was launched. And, while it may not be as exciting or engaging as some of today’s approximately 1.9 billion websites, it’s only natural that the first web page released had instructions on how to use it.

On the World Wide Web Project’s initial website, information about the project was given. It originated at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, when Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist, created it. Individuals could use it to learn how to create web pages and about hypertext with this course (coded words or phrases that link to content).

The First Information Management System

Berners-Lee created the web for the same reason that many of us today visit websites: to simplify our lives. According to him, the problem was with computers themselves; there was no way to exchange data across many devices.

Thus, Berners-Lee provided his CERN supervisors with an information management system in 1989. The system would use hypertext to connect materials stored on various computers connected to the Internet.

The management initially reacted with something along the lines of cool, but no thanks. Berners-Lee was allowed permission to embark on the project, however, when he returned a year later with a new plan. It was on the verge of being launched in 1991. Berners-Lee created HTML, HTTP, and URLs on his NeXT computer, built by Steve Jobs.

Thus, the World Wide Web was formed when a single web page was created. And it has grown substantially in the intervening years. By 1992, there were 10 websites, 3,000 by 1994 (when the W3 standard entered public domain), and two million by 1996, when Google launched its search engine.

Early Websites

Additionally, the first website was lost. Excited by progress and unaware of the true breadth of the web’s potential at the time, computer scientists forgot to archive a significant proportion of the web’s early websites. In 2013, CERN launched an attempt to restore the world’s first web page. However, it has been restored for your investigation, complete with its original URL.

Facebook Can Project Your Eyeballs Onto a VR Headset, Which Sounds Just As Weird

Although the results are somewhere in the middle between slightly uncomfortable and horrific, Facebook Reality Labs aims to make it easier for others to see your eyes when you’re immersed in virtual reality. An article in this week’s issue of FRL describes a technique called “reverse passthrough VR,” which is intended to make virtual reality headgear less physically isolating. Researchers have developed a method for projecting your face onto the front of a headset, they stated that it is still in the early stages of development.

How It Works

This technology is referred to as “Passthrough VR” when a headset feature displays a live video stream from the headset’s cameras, allowing users to see the actual world while still wearing their gadget. For instance, Facebook’s Oculus Quest platform provides users with a passthrough stream whenever they leave the confines of their virtual reality area. When you want to exit virtual reality quickly, this feature is beneficial. It can also be used to provide a sort of augmented reality by adding virtual objects to the camera stream. However, as noted by FRL, people close to a headset user cannot make eye contact, even if the wearer can see them fine. Bystanders who are accustomed to seeing their friend’s or coworker’s bare face may find this awkward.

Nathan Matsuda, a scientist at the FRL, decided to fix this. According to a blog post, Matsuda began in 2019, when he attached a 3D display to an Oculus Rift S virtual reality headset and tested it out. An image of his upper face appeared on the screen, and custom-rigged eye-tracking cameras captured where Matsuda was looking, allowing his avatar’s eyes to point in the same direction as his own. Instead, Matsuda appeared to be dressed as himself, with a telepresence tablet showing a duplicate of his face, which is probably just as awkward as his original appearance but with an intriguingly postmodern twist to it.


Michael Abrash, the principal scientist of FRL, expressed his dissatisfaction with the proposal in a blog post, which was understandable given his background. According to him, his initial reaction to the notion was that it was “sort of a ridiculous idea, a novelty at best.” He added, “However, I do not direct researchers in their work since innovation cannot occur without the opportunity to experiment with new ideas.”


Matsuda took the notion and went with it, leading a team of engineers to develop a new design over two years. Adding a stack of lenses and cameras to a typical VR headset display is the goal of the team’s prototype headgear, which was unveiled ahead of the SIGGRAPH conference in Los Angeles next week. The stereo cameras in the headset record a picture of the wearer’s face and eyes, and the cameras’ motion is mapped onto a computer representation of the wearer’s face. The image is then projected onto an outward-facing light field display, which is used to show information. Although you appear to be gazing through the lenses of thick goggles and seeing a pair of eyes, what you are seeing is a real-time animated replica of the original image. Alternatively, if the user returns to whole virtual reality, the display can go blank to indicate that they are no longer engaged with the outside world.

Ultimately, the outcome is a pair of octagonal goggles that would appear ideally at home in a Terry Gilliam film or television series. FRL demonstrated the system with a rudimentary depiction of a virtual face, but it also demonstrated the technology with more realistic Codec Avatars.

So What’s New in It

FRL admits that the different components of the system are not all revolutionary. For its Vive Pro headsets, HTC already offers a face tracking add-on; while it maps movement onto an avatar inside virtual reality rather than an outward-facing screen, the idea is the same. This week’s study examines the possibilities of light field displays, as well as the system’s ability to improve in-person social connections through engagement.

HoloLens-style projection glasses, on the other hand, theoretically leave your face much more precise than passthrough displays — but many of those glasses have darkened lenses, and as Road to VR points out, projected light on clear lenses can also cause your site to be blocked. However, the latest research from Facebook indicates that while firms like Apple are allegedly experimenting with passthrough designs, solid screens aren’t necessarily a barrier to eye contact,  at least not in the traditional sense.